Frequently Asked Questions
- About the Website Data
- Volunteer Rates
- Volunteering and Community Associations/Nonprofit organizations
- Volunteering Rates and Economic and Community Factors
- Volunteering and Retention
- Additional Research
What is the purpose of the Volunteering and Civic Life in America research and why is it important?
The information found in the Volunteering and Civic Life in America 2013 Web site (www.VolunteeringInAmerica.gov) can enhance discussions with community leaders, political representatives, and interested individuals on what is happening with volunteerism and civic engagement, how to sustain current volunteers, understand the impact of civic participation and how to help new interested parties begin their commitment to service.Volunteers continue to demonstrate a commitment to the nation, serving almost 7.7 billion hours in their communities in 2013. Based on the Independent Sector's estimate of the average value of a volunteer hour, the estimated value of this volunteer service is nearly $173 billion.
The information in the Volunteering and Civic Life in America Web site can also strategically guide an enhancement of the volunteer experience, identify appropriate goals for recruitment, and build a more supportive nonprofit infrastructure for service and extend opportunities for civic engagement and participation. Sharing this information expands opportunities for engagement by showing how different groups elect to be civically engaged, both formally and informally. In conjunction with this release, CNCS is providing training and technical assistance resources to help nonprofits and civic leaders capitalize on this knowledge. These resources will help communities augment and sustain diverse types of civic engagement and provide tools for communities to develop lasting solutions to their problems.
VolunteeringInAmerica.gov helps to define both the volunteering experience and civic life in America. These efforts ultimately supports the mission of the Corporation for National and Community Service to improve lives, strengthen communities, and foster civic engagement through service and volunteering across America.
Local governments, community service leaders, schools, and nonprofit, faith-based, and civic organizations can use this research and the tools found on the Web site to develop growth strategies to expand recruitment and mobilize a greater number of volunteers to help address some of our nation’s most pressing challenges.
In 2013 a decision was made to limit the administration of the November Civic Supplement to a bi-annual schedule.
ABOUT THE WEBSITE DATA
Where does the data come from?
Volunteer data is collected on and then reported at the national, regional, and state and MSA levels for a number of items, including:
- volunteers (age 16 and older) who served through or with an organization;
- volunteer hours served;
- volunteer statistics for demographic subgroups defined by race, ethnicity, gender and age;
- volunteer statistics for specialized populations, such as Baby Boomers Gen Xers, Millenials, Parents, Veterans and College Students
- types of organizations where individuals volunteer; activities performed by volunteers.
- measures of civic involvement (voting, helping neighbors, participating in groups and organizations)
Civic Engagement data is collected on and then reported at the national, regional, and state and MSA levels for a number of items, including:
- social connectedness ( seeing family and friends, eating together, talking to neighbors):
- confidence in institutions and trust in neighbors:
- involvement in civic and community groups
The data for Volunteering and Civic Life in America 2014 were collected through the September, 2013 Volunteer Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS) and the November 2013 Civic Supplement to the CPS. The CPS is a monthly survey of about 60,000 households (approximately 100,000 adults), conducted on an annual basis through a partnership with the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Current Population Survey obtains information on employment and unemployment for the nation’s civilian non-institutionalized population, ages 16 and older. The purpose of the September supplement is to report information on the incidence of volunteering, the characteristics of volunteers, and other aspects of civic life in the United States.
Volunteers are defined as persons who perform unpaid volunteer activities. The count of volunteers includes only persons who volunteered through or for an organization.
National Service data, which is specific to the programs administered by the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS), come from both CNCS and its external partners.
How are the rankings calculated?
The Volunteering and Civic Life in America website includes rankings of America's states, large cities (metropolitan areas) and mid-size cities.
Rankings on were calculated by combining three to four years of data in order to increase the reliability of the ranking and rate. States and large cities (metropolitan areas) use three years of data; mid-size cities use four. You will note that in some cases, single-year results are also available.
To improve stability of the estimates, the rankings results in this report are based on multiple years of data. For example, rankings for states and large-cities are based on three years’ of data —combined statistics calculated from the 2010, 2011, and 2012 volunteering supplement.
Mid-size city rankings are based on four years of data, from the 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013 volunteering supplements to the CPS, as mid-size cities tend to have a smaller sample size each year. Where the sample size for some metropolitan areas drops below 100 cases the data are not reported and rankings for those locations are not generated. This is due to the fact that results for samples of less than 100 cases in size will have large sampling errors and will not yield sufficiently reliable results.
Despite the use of multiple years’ worth of data to produce the ranking statistics, however, some differences between states and cities may not be statistically significant.
Cautionary note about rankings
Ranks are based on estimates derived from a sample. Because of sampling and nonsampling errors associated with the estimates, the ranking of the estimates does not necessarily reflect the correct ranking of the unknown true values. Thus, caution should be used when making inferences or statements about states' (or MSAs’) true values based on a ranking of the estimates. As an example, the estimated volunteering rate for for State A may be larger than the estimated rate for State B. This does not necessarily mean that the true volunteering rate for State A is larger than that for State B. Such an inference typically depends on – among other factors – the size of the difference(s) between the estimates in question, and the size of their associated standard errors.
What geographic areas are used for large city rankings?
For city rankings, the data are collected from the entire Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Thus, the data considers volunteering within the principal cities of the MSA as well as suburban areas. MSAs are metropolitan statistical areas, as defined by. According to the definitions provided by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), an MSA is centered on one or more urbanized areas of 50,000 or more in population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the urban core as measured by commuting ties.
The exception to this rule is in New England, where volunteering statistics are not reported for MSAs, but for NECTAs (New England City and Town Areas). NECTAs are based on cities and towns, while MSAs are based on counties, which tend to be much larger and have more diverse populations in New England. To gather data from other sources, we use data from MSAs whose boundaries match the NECTA boundaries as closely as possible.
To take an example, statistics for Los Angeles, CA were collected within the Los Angeles Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) which includes the following major cities: Los Angeles, CA; Long Beach, CA; and Santa Ana, CA, plus portions of the populations of Los Angeles and Orange Counties in California. For more information about MSAs, see http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/omb/bulletins/b03-04_attach.pdf.
Are rankings the most important aspect of the Volunteering and Civic Life in America release?
No. While state and city volunteer rankings are one method for showing improvements in a city or state, it is not the most important aspect of the site. VolunteeringInAmerica.gov provides a current landscape of volunteering and service in American communities. State and City ranking may differ by special populations, and this will allows communities to identify which groups of individuals are volunteering, what service activities are being performed, and which types of organizations are the most common sites for volunteering.
The site can also rank states by archived measures, including voting, helping neighbors, discussing politics, and social connectedness. CNCS provides tools, tips and effective practices to help nonprofits, communities and civic leaders develop and implement their service agenda, strengthen their volunteer recruitment efforts, and deepen their volunteers’ commitment to service. The wealth of information available on the site is an important platform to develop volunteer growth strategies and build the civic infrastructure of nonprofits and communities.
It should be noted that yearly fluctuations in rankings tend to be less stable and, generally speaking, the differences between states are not statistically different, except at the extremes of the distribution. Thus, a shift in rankings from (for example) 15th to 20th are not likely to may not reflect true statistical differences.
How are organizations categorized where people volunteer?
The CPS questionnaire (which is actually developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics or BLS) sorts the types of organizations where people volunteer into 16 categories (see list below). We then recode the BLS organization-type variable even further to create the Volunteering in America version. The “other” category contains the BLS categories “other” (an original CPS response), “environmental or animal care,” and “public safety.” The “not determined” responses have been removed from the totals altogether.
Types of Organizations Categories:
1) Religious organizations; 2) Children’s educational, sports and recreational groups; 3) Other educational groups; 4) Social and community service groups; 5) Civic organizations; 6) Cultural or arts organizations; 7) Environmental or animal care organizations; 8) Health research or education organizations; 9) Hospitals, clinics and healthcare organizations; 10)Immigrant/refugee assistance organizations; 11) International organizations; 12) Labor unions, and business or professional organizations; 13) Political parties or Advocacy Groups; 14) Public safety organizations; 15) Sports and hobby groups; and 16) Youth services organizations.
If you would like to see examples of each of the organization categories, please click here.
How are civic groups categorized where people participate?
The CPS 2013 November supplement identifies the types of organizations where people participate (list below). These broad categories include; 1) school groups, neighborhood, or community associations such as PTA or neighborhood watch groups; 2) service or civic organizations such as American Legion or Lions Club; 3) sports or recreation organizations; 4) churches, synagogues, mosques, or other religious institution (not counting attendance at services); and 5) other type of organizations.
How are volunteer activities categorized?
The CPS questionnaire sorts the types of volunteer activities into 13 categories (see list below). Volunteers are asked whether they perform each of these activities with their main organization – the organization with which they served the most hours in the previous year. The volunteer activities statistics we report on Volunteering in America are different from those reported in the annual brief published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Volunteering in the United States.” Table 6 of the annual BLS brief shows the percentage of volunteers whose main activity with their main volunteer organization falls into each of the standard activity categories. In VIA, we report the percentage of volunteers who perform this activity at all with their main organization, whether or not they considered this to be their main activity.
Volunteer Activity Categories:
1) Coach, referee, or supervise sports teams; 2) Tutor or teach; 3) Mentor youth; 4) Be an usher, greeter, or minister; 5) Collect, prepare, distribute, or serve food; 6) Collect, make, or distribute clothing, crafts, or goods other than food; 7) Fundraise or sell items to raise money; 8) Provide counseling, medical care, fire/EMS or protective services; 9) Provide general office services; 10) Provide professional or management assistance, including serving on a board or committee; 11) Engage in music, performance, or other artistic activities; 12) Engage in general labor; supply transportation for people; 13) Other.
If you would like to see examples of each of the volunteer categories, please click here.
How did the volunteer rates change in 2013?
While the volunteer rate decreased between 2012 and 2013 by .3 percent, the national rate continues to be above 25 percent. Approximately one in four Americans (25.4 percent or 62.6 million Americans) volunteered nearly 7.7 billion hours last year. Based on the Independent Sector’s estimate of the average value of a volunteer hour, the estimated value of this volunteer service is nearly $173 billion.
- While volunteer hours declined, those who continued serving showed strong dedication to making a difference.
VOLUNTEERING AND COMMUNITY ASSOCIATIONS/NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
How are volunteers making a difference in their communities?
All types of Americans are serving in a variety of ways. From young students to seniors - Americans are making a difference through traditional nonprofits, by serving informally in their communities, and creating their own service project. The Volunteering in America data shows that 62.6 million Americans across the country volunteered to help change the course of their communities. communities. In addition, more than 152 million Americans (62.5 percent) also engaged in "informal volunteering" in their communities, which includes helping neighbors with such tasks as watching each other’s children, helping with shopping, or house sitting. Volunteering in America data illustrates the rate of individuals ages 16 and over who perform unpaid volunteer activities for or through an organization. It is important to note that this is only one of the many ways that Americans are serving.
Volunteers are mobilizing to help individuals in need by mentoring youth to help them stay in school; serving food at their local church or shelter; providing job training and employment counseling; and contributing to many other critical services. Through service, volunteers are supporting the vulnerable populations hit hardest by the economy and helping to create a stronger, more stable future.
Are volunteers replacing current staff in nonprofit organizations?
The nation’s nonprofits are under strain from a tight economy, a leadership drain (as Boomers retire), and are facing higher staff turnover rates than many other industries. Volunteers are a resource for tackling these challenges. We have found more often that volunteers provide shorter-term services than staff, and often serve part-time. To that regard, nonprofits are not encouraged to use volunteerism as a strategy to replace permanent staff. Instead, nonprofits are encouraged to incorporate volunteering into their strategic mission. Volunteers can serve many functions, whether it is providing direct services by providing financial management and job training to someone who has lost employment, or by providing capacity-building services such as recruiting and managing other volunteers. The Volunteering as a Pathway to Employment research by CNCS in 2013 has also demonstrated a positive link between volunteering and employment for those seeking a job.
How can civic participation be increased to augment the civic health of communities?
CNCS and NCoCprovide training and technical assistance resources to help nonprofits and civic leaders capitalize on the information provided here on volunteering and civic engagement. These resources were designed to assist communities enhance civic participation and provide tools for communities to develop lasting solutions to their problems.
VOLUNTEER RATES AND ECONOMIC AND COMMUNITY FACTORS
What leads to differences in volunteer rates?
While we cannot conclusively determine that any single factor directly influences the level of volunteering in a community, we have identified several factors which are associated with volunteer rates
Greater Attachment to Community Encourages Volunteering:
- Higher Rates of Homeownership Correlates with Higher Percentages of Volunteers: In places where more homes are owner-occupied, community residents tend to have higher levels of investment in a community, and, perhaps as a result, higher levels of volunteering.
- Large Numbers of Multi-Unit Housing Correlate with Lower Volunteering Rates: In states and large metropolitan areas with a larger percentage of multi-unit housing, such as apartment buildings and condominiums, volunteer rates tend to be lower. While heavily populated areas may provide more opportunities to volunteer, residents may also be less engaged in community affairs, as suggested by this result.
- Conversely, Volunteer Rates Lower in Cities with Higher Foreclosures: Large cities with higher rates of foreclosures tended to have lower rates of volunteering. However, we do not observe a similar relationship between unemployment and volunteering at the state level.
- Long Commutes Can Curtail Opportunities to Volunteer: Long commutes can curtail volunteering in a community by decreasing the amount of time residents have for non-work related activities, as well as the time for creating the social connections that lead to volunteering.
Socio-economic Conditions Correlate with Volunteer Rates: Some communities, particularly those with a smaller percentage of residents who have a high school diploma or GED and those with higher unemployment and poverty rates, tend to have less access to civic resources that reinforce volunteering.
- Volunteering Rises with Education: For states and large metropolitan areas, as the education level increases, the likelihood of volunteering also increases.
- In States, Higher Unemployment Related to Lower Volunteering: States with higher unemployment rates are more likely to have lower volunteering rates. However, we do not observe a similar relationship between unemployment and volunteering across major metropolitan areas ("large cities").
- Volunteering is Less Common in Higher Poverty Areas: Poverty is another socioeconomic characteristic that tends to be strongly associated with lower volunteer rates.This may be related to the link between number of non-profits in an area and the rate of volunteering (see point 4 below).
- Greater Numbers of Community Associations Correlate with Higher Volunteer Rates:Cities with fewer nonprofits may find themselves with smaller numbers of volunteers because of the lack of opportunity and options. Not surprisingly, then, communities with more nonprofits per capita are likely to have higher volunteer rates.
All of these factors can play a role in influencing the volunteer rate in a community and each city has its own unique blend of strengths and challenges.
What can a city do to increase its volunteer rate?
Volunteering in America is a great tool for states and cities to develop comprehensive strategies to increase their volunteer capacity and to leverage citizen service. This Web site provides evidence that volunteering habits are strongly connected to the particular characteristics of a given community. In order to make a big difference, over-arching changes may need to be made to the community as a whole. However, there are some practical steps we can take to move closer to the goal of engaging all Americans in serving their communities. Some of those steps include:
Encourage leaders in communities to consider strategies for elevating the issue of volunteering in their policies and communications. Volunteering is already playing a large role in solving problems and raising the quality of life in cities and states across the country, but there is a long way to go before the majority of communities are benefitting from the full potential of volunteering in their areas.
Work with employers to popularize flexible work schedules in order to diminish the effect of long commuting times on volunteering. Also, spread the word about pro bono volunteering and skills-based volunteering—they are no longer just for legal professionals. They can be excellent training experiences as well as opportunities for real partnerships in the community leading to natural, positive public relations.
Work with schools and other groups to spur greater community engagement among youth through activities such as service-learning in order to start young people on a pathway to life-long engagement and to draw parents into service as well.
Encourage nonprofits to reinvent and expand the roles that volunteers play in an organization in order to attract more people to service and boost volunteer retention.
VOLUNTEERING AND RETENTION
How is volunteer retention calculated?
Volunteer retention is defined as the proportion of year-1 volunteers who also perform volunteer service in the following year. Due to the design of the CPS Volunteer Supplement sample, 50 percent of the respondents in a given year remain in the sample for the following September supplement. Volunteer retention rates are calculated using matched pairs of CPS Volunteer Supplement datasets, because year-1 and year-2 statistics are available for individual respondents. For example, the national retention rate for 2013 is calculated as the proportion of those who volunteered in 2012 (year 1) who also volunteered in 2013 (year 2).
Is volunteer retention still a significant issue?
While many nonprofits have benefited from the increase in the number of hours volunteers spent serving, volunteer retention still remains a significant issue.
Data from the Current Population Survey Volunteer Supplement show that about one third of volunteers tend to drop out of service each year. According to the most recent CPS data, 35 percent of 2013 volunteers – 22.8 million adults overall – did not volunteer again in 2013. This is an increased volunteer attrition rate of 500,000 volunteers between 2012 and 2013 across the country. This high rate of volunteer turn-over stunts the productivity of non-profit organizations as they focus on replacing volunteers instead of maximizing impact.
Here are some reasons why volunteers stop serving and non-volunteers do not serve:
- They are not invited to volunteer: Personal invitations to serve are more appealing to prospective volunteers;
- There are myths about volunteering: Non-volunteers see themselves as essentially different from volunteers;
- Volunteering takes up too much time: Non-volunteers worry about having enough time to volunteer, but in fact, research shows that people who do not volunteer have more free time than volunteers do;
- Organizations do not implement effective volunteer management practices: Poor volunteer management turns people off of service; and
- Organizations try to make a square peg fit in a round hole: Skills-based volunteering can bring in new volunteers. As such, be flexible about the types of opportunities you offer volunteers and assess their interests. For example, if you manage a tutoring program, you might find that a prospective volunteer might be less interested in tutoring, but might be more willing to utilize her marketing skills to help promote the program.
What can nonprofits do to increase retention of their volunteers?
Below is a list of eight effective management practices that organizations can adopt to increase volunteer retention:
- Regularly supervise and communicate with volunteers;
- Train paid staff in how to work with volunteers;
- Offer training and professional development opportunities for volunteers;
- Measure the impacts of your volunteers each year;
- Recognize your volunteers through activities, such as award ceremonies;
- Write policies and service descriptions for volunteers;
- Implement screening procedures to identify suitable volunteers; and
- Regularly collect information on volunteer numbers and hours.
How can a city or community help nonprofit organizations build capacity using volunteers?
The nation’s nonprofits are under strain from a tight economy, a leadership drain (as Boomers retire), and high turnover among younger nonprofit staff. Volunteers are an undervalued and underutilized resource for tackling these challenges. Here are some specific ways volunteers can help nonprofits address financial challenges, confront workforce shortages, and achieve high impact:
- Tackling Financial Challenges -- Volunteers can help ease financial pressures by providing technology services, developing programs, training staff and conducting strategic planning.
- Confronting workforce shortages -- Engaging volunteers is a common sense strategy for attracting additional experience and providing support to alleviate burnout. Baby Boomer volunteers can mentor young nonprofit professionals, leading to improved staff morale and lower turnover.
- Achieving High Impact-- Volunteers may know a community’s assets, key players, and underlying challenges. They may also have the community connections required to open doors. Volunteers can also help a nonprofit stay connected to community issues.
More info about how to attract and retain volunteers can be found at http://www.nationalserviceresources.org/
What other research has the Corporation for National and Community Service produced and where can I find it?
Each year, the Office of Research and Evaluation produces an overview of volunteering at the national, regional, state, and city level. To see related research, go to http://www.volunteeringinamerica.gov/research.cfm
Religious organizations include:
Congregations: Churches, synagogues, temples, mosques, shrines, monasteries, seminaries, and similar organizations that promote religious beliefs and administer religious services and rituals.
Associations of congregations: This includes associations and auxiliaries of religious congregations and organizations that support and promote religious beliefs, services, and rituals. The Knights of Columbus and Salvation Army are examples.
Children’s educational, sports and recreational groups include:
Elementary, primary and secondary education: Preschools, kindergartens, elementary schools, and high schools. This category does NOT include daycare. Associations related to children’s schooling, like the PTA/PTO, are included.
Other educational groups include:
Higher education: Colleges, universities, graduate schools, law schools, medical schools, and other institutions that provide academic degrees.
Other educational organizations: This includes libraries and associations of colleges and universities such as alumni organizations, fraternities, and sororities. This group also includes vocational or trade schools that are geared toward helping people gain employment such as technical training schools, paralegal training, secretarial training, or beauty schools.
Job training programs: Organizations that provide or support apprenticeship programs, internships, on-the-job training, and other training programs.
Social and community service groups include:
Youth services: This includes delinquency prevention services, teen pregnancy prevention, jobs for youths, YMCA and YWCA, and B’nai Brith.
Family services: This includes family violence shelters and services.
Services for the elderly: This includes homemaker services, transportation, adult daycare, recreation, and meal services geared toward the elderly. This does NOT include residential nursing homes.
Emergency relief: Organizations that work to prevent or alleviate the effects of disasters, organizations that educate or help prepare people to cope with the effects of disasters or provide relief to disaster victims.
Temporary shelters: Organizations that provide temporary shelters to the homeless including travelers aid and temporary housing.
Material assistance: Organizations that provide food, clothing, transportation, and other forms of assistance. This group includes food banks and clothing distribution centers.
Social services and social development: Organizations that work towards solving or alleviating social problems and that work toward improving general public well being. This category includes programs aimed at rehabilitating offenders such as halfway houses, probation and parole programs, and prison alternatives. This category includes victim support services.
Housing development: Organizations that build, maintain or rehabilitate buildings, housing, and other structures.
Civic organizations include:
Community and neighborhood associations: Organizations that work toward improving the quality of life within communities and neighborhoods. This group includes homeowner associations.
Housing assistance: Organizations that help with housing searches, legal services, and related assistance.
Civic associations: Organizations that promote programs to encourage civic mindedness. This group includes the Rotary Club and Lion’s Club.
Cultural or arts organizations include:
Media and communications: Organizations that produce and disseminate information. This group includes radio and TV stations, book publishers, newspapers and newsletters, and film production.
Visual arts, architecture, ceramic art: Organizations that produce, disseminate and display visual art and architecture; this includes sculpture, photographic societies, painting, drawing, design centers, and architectural associations.
Performing arts: Performing arts centers, companies and associations; this includes theater, dance, ballet, opera, orchestras, choral groups, and music ensembles.
Historical, literary and humanistic societies: Organizations that promote appreciation of the humanities, preservation of historical and cultural artifacts, and commemoration of historical events, including historical societies, poetry and literary societies, language associations, reading promotion programs, war memorials, commemorative funds, and associations.
Museums: General and specialized museums covering art, history, science, technology, and culture.
Zoos and aquariums.
Environmental or animal care organizations include:
Pollution control: Organizations that promote clean air, clean water, reducing noise pollution, radiation control, treatment of hazard wastes and toxic substances, solid waste management and recycling programs.
Environmental conservation and protection: Organizations that work to conserve and protect natural resources including land, water, energy, and plant resources.
Environmental beautification and open spaces: Organizations that promote anti-litter campaigns, programs to preserve the parks, green spaces, open spaces in rural and urban areas, and highway and city beautification programs. This group also includes botanical gardens, arboreta, horticultural programs, and landscape services.
Animal protection and welfare: This group includes animal shelters and humane societies, such as the ASPCA and PETA.
Wildlife preservation and protection: This group includes wildlife sanctuaries and refuges, and organizations that work to protect animals from extinction.
Veterinary services: Animal hospitals and organizations that provide care to farm and household animals and pets.
Health research or education organizations (including public health) include:
Physical and mental health research: Organizations that do research on specific diseases, disorders, or medical disciplines. This group includes health research or fundraising organizations like the American Cancer Society and the American Autism Society.
Public health and wellness education: Organizations that promote public health and health education. This group includes sanitation screening for potential health risks, first aid training, and family planning services.
Hospitals, clinics and healthcare organizations include:
Hospitals: Institutions that offer primarily inpatient medical care and treatment.
Nursing homes: This group includes inpatient convalescent care, residential nursing facilities, and homes for the frail elderly and severely handicapped. This group includes hospice care facilities.
Mental health organizations: This group includes psychiatric hospitals that provide inpatient treatment for mentally ill patients, community mental health centers, and halfway houses. This group also includes self-help groups like Alcoholics Anonymous and other 12-step programs.
Other health services: This group includes organizations that primarily provide outpatient services such as health clinics, physical therapy centers, and vaccination centers. This group includes organizations that provide services to handicapped individuals such as transportation, recreation, and group homes for the handicapped.
Immigrant/refugee assistance organizations include:
Organizations that primarily help provide services to immigrants and refugees such as citizenship training, employment assistance, English as a Second Language courses, legal assistance, and housing and health care. Examples of organizations that fall under this category include Lutheran Refugee Services, International Rescue Committee, and Immigration and Refugee Services of America.
International organizations include:
Exchange, friendship and cultural programs: Groups that work to promote mutual respect and friendship internationally. This group includes student exchange programs.
Development assistance associations: Groups that sponsor programs and projects that promote social and economic development abroad.
International disaster relief organizations: Groups that collect, channel, and provide aid to other countries during times of disaster or emergency. This group includes Doctors without Borders.
International human rights and peace organizations: Organizations that promote and monitor human rights and peace internationally. This group includes Amnesty International.
Labor unions, and business or professional organizations include:
Labor unions: Organizations that promote, protect, and regulate the rights and interests of employees.
Business associations: Organizations that work to promote, regulate, and safeguard interests of special branches of business such as manufacturers’ associations, farmers’ associations, and bankers’ associations.
Professional organizations: Organizations that promote, regulate, and protect the interests of specific professions like bar associations and medical associations.
Political parties or Advocacy Groups include:
Political organizations: Organizations that provide services to support placing candidates into political office at the local, state and national level. This includes getting information out about the candidates, public relations activities and political fundraising.
Advocacy organizations: Organizations that protect the rights and promote the interests of specific groups of people, such as the physically handicapped, the elderly, children, or women.
Civil rights organizations: Organizations that work to protect or preserve individual civil liberties and human rights.
Ethnic associations: Organizations that promote the interests of, or provide services to, individuals of a specific ethnic heritage.
Consumer protection associations: Organizations that protect consumer rights, or that seek to improve product control and quality.
Public safety organizations include:
Crime prevention and safety: This includes organizations that promote safety and precautionary measures among citizens. This group includes police auxiliary associations, volunteer fire departments, and neighborhood crime watch groups.
Sports and hobby groups include:
Sports: Organizations that provide amateur sports for people 16-years old or older, training, physical fitness, sport competition, and events. This group includes fitness and wellness centers.
Social clubs: This group includes organizations that provide recreational facilities and services to individuals and communities that include playground associations, men’s and women’s clubs, touring clubs, and leisure clubs.
|1) Coach, referee, or supervise sports teams||
|2) Tutor or teach||
|3) Mentor youth||
|4) Be an usher, greeter, or minister||
|5) Collect, prepare, distribute, or serve food||
|6) Collect, make, or distribute clothing, crafts, or goods other than food||
|7) Fundraise or sell items to raise money||
|8) Provide counseling, medical care, fire/EMS or protective services||
|9) Provide general office services||
|10) Provide professional or management assistance, including serving on a board or committee||
|11) Engage in music, performance, or other artistic activities||
|12) Engage in general labor; supply transportation for people||